Different Steel Grades
Steel grades are defined by the ASTM Grading System, which assigns a letter prefix to each metal based on the category, such as “A” for steel fabricator and “B” for iron. These metals are then assigned a sequential number that reflects their specific properties. Similarly, the SAE Grading System uses a four-digit number to classify metals. The first two digits of the number indicate the type of steel, while the third digit indicates the amount of carbon or alloying element in the metal.
Low carbon steel
Low carbon steel is a type of steel that doesn’t require heat treatment before being used in various applications. It is usually rolled or shaped in various forms and has a high degree of weldability. However, due to its low carbon content, low carbon steel doesn’t have the desired hardness and machinability. However, quenching can improve these characteristics. This type of steel is usually rolled into steel pipes, angles, and channels.
Low carbon steel has a high yield strength and good tensile strength. It also has good ductility and corrosion resistance. Low carbon steel is commonly used in the construction of bridges and other structures. Its tensile strength ranges from 400 to 550 MPa. However, if you need to use a higher strength material for your project, you should look for a higher carbon steel.
Low carbon steel is also used in the construction industry and is an alternative to stainless steel and aluminium alloy metals. It has a medium tensile strength and is light in weight, making it ideal for bridges, transmission towers, and other structural applications. It is also easy to shape.
Medium carbon steel
Medium carbon steels contain carbon content of 0.30% to 0.60% and may also contain a small amount of manganese (0.6 percent to 1.65 percent). These materials are generally weldable and can be used to produce a variety of machined products. They may undergo martensite formation, which increases the hardness of the steel. However, these metals are susceptible to pre and postweld cracking.
Typical applications for medium carbon steel include construction and heavy machinery parts. This steel is commonly used for crankshafts, axles, couplings, and gears. It is also widely used in the railroad industry. For example, axles, rails, and wheels are commonly made from steel that contains 0.4 to 0.6 percent carbon content.
Medium carbon steel is an alloy of carbon and iron. It is a ductile, strong metal, with a carbon content of 0.30 to 0.60 percent. It can be processed to achieve a range of hardness, with the maximum hardness being HRC55.
Stainless steel is an iron-based alloy that is highly resistant to corrosion and heat. This type of steel contains a minimum of 10.5% chromium, which gives it superior corrosion resistance. Its composition is mostly carbon and iron, but some alloying elements like molybdenum and nitrogen are added to improve its properties.
The term “stainless steel” refers to a variety of steels that are corrosion-resistant. Stainless steel is made from alloys containing at least 10.5% chromium, which creates a thin film of metal oxides that give them their corrosion-resistant properties. Stainless steel 316 alloy contains 16-18% chromium, ten to 14% nickel, and two to three percent molybdenum, making it particularly corrosion-resistant. Stainless steel is divided into several categories, each of which has its own unique advantages.
Most stainless steel is first melted in an electric-arc furnace or basic oxygen furnace. It is then refined in a separate steelmaking vessel to reduce the carbon content. Afterward, it is subjected to an argon-oxygen decarburization process that uses an alternating ratio of argon and oxygen gas to break down carbon to carbon monoxide.
Tool steels are carbon steels that have been heat treated. They have between 0.5 and 1.5% carbon and a small amount of alloying elements. These materials are much stronger than lower-grade steels, which can fracture under heavy loads. There are different grades of tool steel, depending on the application. Here are some of the advantages and disadvantages of tool steels.
Alloying elements improve tool steel’s toughness, wear resistance, and strength. The alloying elements also give tool steel specific properties. High-alloy tool steels can be made with high amounts of these elements. The resulting alloys are designed for a specific application. In this way, they can meet the needs of different industries.
Tool steels can be further divided into six categories: water-hardening, hot-work, cold-work, high-speed, special purpose, and shock-resistant. Which one to choose depends on the application, working temperature, and desired surface hardness. Some alloys have additional properties such as corrosion resistance and low-wear resistance.